A coin toss is generally considered a fair and practical way to make decisions between two or two parties. After all, everyone has a 50-50 chance of winning, right? Now, scientists have discovered that their numbers are not so evenly distributed. Also, the balance tends to be biased to one side, giving one participant a slight advantage. From a statistical perspective, a coin toss starts with two sides of the coin before the element of chance is introduced. That means tossing a coin and catching it. After all, you can't control how many times the coin spins before it falls. But as a team led by American mathematician Persi Diaconis discovered, even though a coin toss is random, it can still introduce small wobbles. This increases the chance that the first team to compete wins, but by a small margin.
In a study now in pre-publication, a group of scientists set out to test Diaconis' findings and prove that coins land on the same side as they were tossed about 51 % of the time. “According to the [Diaconis] model, precession causes the coin to spend more time in the air with its original side up,” they write. "As a result, the coin is more likely to land on the same side it originally landed on (i.e., 'ipsilateral bias'). ” The team that conducted the latter study collected 350,757 coin tosses thrown by 48 out of 46 people. Various currencies were executed. In the end, there was a 50.8% chance that the coin would appear on the same side as the one on which it was tossed. However, while some tossers had a strong same-side bias, others had no such bias at all, indicating that many tosses were caused by the person who flipped the coin.
Even if it doesn't seem like you have much, the benefits can increase over time. "The degree of bias observed can be explained using a betting scenario," the team suggests. “You bet $1 on the outcome of a coin toss (that is, you pay $1 to participate and win $0 or $2 depending on the outcome) and repeat your bet 1,000 times knowing where the coin toss starts, you'll earn a profit of $19 on average."
But if a coin toss is only used to determine, say, which team picks or plays first, the researchers have suggestions to make it fair for everyone. Skilled Player "When making decisions on the field, it is best to hide the starting position of the coin."